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Glossary Items

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  1. An accelerometer is a tool that measures changes in gravitational acceleration in the unit it may be installed in. An accelerometer is an electromechanical device that will measure acceleration forces (e.g., G-Force).
    An accelerometer is an electromechanical device that will measure acceleration forces (e.g. G-Force). These forces may be static, like the constant force of gravity pulling at your feet, or they could be dynamic - caused by moving or vibrating the accelerometer.
  2. Access Control as a Service (ACaaS) is a recurring fee-based system where a facility manager outsources electronic access control to a third party, where each facility does not need to maintain a dedicated server.
    ACaaS is no different from SaaS except that the service in question is access control. The users pay as they go and only for what they need.
  3. An access point connects users to other users within the network and also can serve as the point of interconnection between the WLAN and a fixed wire network.
    Each access point can serve multiple users within a defined network area, as people move beyond the range of one access point, they are automatically handed over to the next one. A small WLAN may only require a single access point; the number required increases as a function of the number of network users and the physical size of the network.
  4. In the context of remote sensing, an active sensor is a device with a transmitter that sends out a signal, light wavelength, or electrons to be bounced off a target, with data gathered by the sensor upon their reflection.
    In the context of remote sensing, an active sensor is a device with a transmitter that sends out a signal, light wavelength or electrons to be bounced off a target, with data gathered by the sensor upon their reflection. The data gathered by remote sensing is used for everything from cartography to resource exploration to atmospheric and chemical measurements. Remote sensing is also essential to the Internet of Things (IoT), in which almost any physical or logical entity can be equipped with a unique identifier and the ability to transfer data over a network autonomously.
  5. A device combined with an application to record and analyze physiological metrics such as heart rate, sleep quality, skin temperature, calories burned, and more.
    The term is now primarily used for dedicated electronic monitoring devices that are synced, in many cases wirelessly, to a computer or smartphone for long-term data tracking, an example of wearable technology.
  6. An actuator is a type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion.
    It is operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. The most common type of actuator is powered by air and is called a pneumatic cylinder or air cylinder. This type of actuator is an airtight cylinder, typically made from metal, that uses the stored energy of compressed air to move a piston when the air is released or uncompressed. These actuators are most commonly used in manufacturing and assembly processes. Grippers, which are used in robotics, use actuators that are driven by compressed air to work much like human fingers.
  7. An ad hoc network is a local area network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devices connect. Ad hoc networks are deployable and configurable networks for industrial use.
    Ad-hoc networks are deployable and configurable networks for industrial use.
  8. An ad hoc query is a query that cannot be determined before the moment the query is issued. It is created to get information when the need arises, and it consists of dynamically constructed SQL, which is usually constructed by desktop-resident query tools.
    It is created in order to get information when need arises and it consists of dynamically constructed SQL which is usually constructed by desktop-resident query tools. Ad Hoc Queries are used intensively in the Internet. Search engines process millions of queries every single second from different data sources.
  9. Adaptive architecture is a system that changes its structure, behavior, or resources according to demand. The adaptation made is usually to non-functional characteristics rather than functional ones..
    Adaptive infrastructure architecture: Used by infrastructure engineers in relation to the configuration of processors. The computing resources used by applications (the partition size, or the number of servers in a cluster, or the share of a processor, or the number of processes) are configured so that they shrink or grow with demand.
  10. Adaptive Network Topology is a proprietary (but open access) multicast wireless sensor network technology designed and marketed by ANT Wireless. It is primarily used for sports and fitness sensors.
    It defines a wireless communications protocol stack that enables hardware operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band to communicate by establishing standard rules for co-existence, data representation, signalling, authentication, and error detection. It is conceptually similar to Bluetooth low energy, but is oriented towards usage with sensors.
  11. Additive Manufacturing refers to a process by which digital 3D design data is used to build up a component in layers by depositing material. Metal, polymer, and ceramic materials can be used to manufacture parts of a geometry that often cannot be produced by any other manufacturing technology.
    The names of specific additive manufacturing technologies include: 3D printing, layered object manufacturing, selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, LENS, stereolithography, and fused deposition modeling. Synonyms include layered manufacturing, solid freeform manufacturing, direct digital manufacturing, rapid prototyping.
  12. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol for converting an IP address into a physical address. ARP's computers can communicate with each other by sending an ARP request that informs them about the other computer’s MAC address.
    With ARP's computers can communicate with each other, despite only knowing each other’s IP addresses, by sending an ARP request that informs them about the other computer’s MAC address.
  13. Addressability refers to the ability of a digital device to respond to a message sent to many similar devices individually. To be addressable, an entity must be uniquely identifiable.
    To be addressable, an entity must be uniquely identifiable, meaning that it must be associated with something ― typically an alphanumeric string ― that is not associated with anything else that exists within that system.
  14. Advanced cruise-assist highway systems (AHS) are systems that aim to reduce traffic accidents, enhance safety, improve transportation efficiency as well as to reduce the operational work of drivers.
    According to Japans MLIT, AHS can be classified into three levels based on driving support, namely AHS- i (information), AHS- c (control) and AHS- a (automated cruise). AHS- i supports part of the information collection for driving. AHS- c supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection. AHS- a fully supports the driving operation and the information collection, therefore, responsibility for safe driving belongs to the AHS- a system. In addition to the technological problems, issues such as the responsibilities for safe driving must be considered in order to realise AHS- a .
  15. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are electronic systems that help the vehicle driver while driving or during parking. When designed with a safe human-machine interface, they are intended to increase car safety and road safety.
    ADAS functionality includes digital vision for lane departure warnings, blind spot detection, radar for collision avoidance, and V2V communication for multiple vehicles operating near each other. The data and connectivity integral to ADAS transforms vehicles into IoT devices.
  16. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) operates on a public/private key system, and planning for key management is an important aspect when implementing AES encryption.
    AES operates on a public/private key system, and planning for key management is an important aspect when implementing AES encryption.
  17.  The process of leveraging the most advanced technology available at the current time in order to maximize the output and/or product quality of a manufacturing facility.
    For example, one organization defines advanced manufacturing as industries that increasingly integrate new innovative technologies in both products and processes. The rate of technology adoption and the ability to use that technology to remain competitive and add value define the advanced manufacturing sector.
  18. Advanced materials outperform conventional materials with superior properties such as toughness, hardness, durability and elasticity. They can have novel properties including the ability to memorize shape or sense changes in the environment and respond.
    Advanced materials outperform conventional materials with superior properties such as toughness, hardness, durability and elasticity. They can have novel properties including the ability to memorize shape or sense changes in the environment and respond. The development of advanced materials can even lead to the design of completely new products, including medical implants and computers.
  19. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open-source standard for business message communication and message-oriented middleware. The defining features of the AMQP are message orientation, queuing, routing, reliability, and security.
    Main features include message orientation, queuing, routing, reliability, and security. AMQP is mostly used in business messaging. It usually defines devices as mobile handsets communicating with back-office data centers. In the IoT context, AMQP is most appropriate for the control plane or server-based analysis functions.
  20. Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. It's mostly related to lean manufacturing.
    It can incorporate mass customization concepts to meet unique customer needs as well as quick response manufacturing to reduce lead times across an enterprise.
  21. AllJoyn is a collaborative open-source software framework that allows devices to communicate with other devices around them. A simple example would be a motion sensor letting a light bulb know that no one is in the room; it is lighting so that it can shut itself off.
    A simple example would be a motion sensor letting a light bulb know that no one is in the room it is lighting, so it can shut itself off. The system itself is an open source project which provides a universal software framework and core set of system services that enable that interoperability among connected products and software applications across manufacturers to create dynamic proximal networks using a D-Bus message bus.
  22. AltBeacon is an open and interoperable proximity beacon specification. The AltBeacon specification defines the format of the advertisement message that Bluetooth Low Energy proximity beacons broadcast.
    The AltBeacon specification defines the format of the advertisement message that Bluetooth Low Energy proximity beacons broadcast. The specification is intended to create an open, competitive market for proximity beacon implementations and is free for all to implement, with no royalty or fees.
  23. Altimeter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. The device’s general purpose is to tell its human or machine user how elevated from sea level it is.
    An altimeter is a altitude measurement device used by mountaineers, skydivers, pilots, satellites, and many others. The device’s general purpose is to tell its human or machine user how elevated from sea level it is. It performs this function via one of two ways: either by measuring the local air pressure using a barometer, or by bouncing radar off a target.
  24. Ambient intelligence refers to sensor-filled environments that interpret and react to human events and activity, and learning to adapt over time, the environment’s operation and services change based on that activity.
  25. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a character-encoding scheme. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text.
    ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters. ASCII was the most common character encoding on the World Wide Web until December 2007, when it was surpassed by UTF-8, which includes ASCII as a subset.
  26. Android Wear is an open-source platform that extends the Android system to wearables. Android Wear is a version of Google's Android operating system designed for smartwatches and other wearables.
    Android Wear is a version of Google's Android operating system designed for smartwatches and other wearables. By pairing with mobile phones running Android version 4.3 or newer, or iOS version 8.2 or newer with limited support from Google's pairing application, Android Wear integrates Google Now technology and mobile notifications into a smartwatch form factor.
  27. A statistical technique that determines what patterns are normal and then identifies items that do not conform to those patterns. It is applicable in intrusion detection, fraud detection, system health monitoring, event detection in sensor networks, and detecting eco-system disturbances.
    Unlike simple classification where the classes are known in advance, in anomaly detection the users don’t know what they are looking for in the data. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, such as intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring, event detection in sensor networks, and detecting Eco-system disturbances. It is often used in preprocessing to remove anomalous data from the dataset. In supervised learning, removing the anomalous data from the dataset often results in a statistically significant increase in accuracy.
  28. A Java-based software tool for automating software build processes. Another Neat Tool (ANT) is similar to MAKE as it also has tasks and defines dependencies between tasks.
    Apache Ant (acronym for another neat tool) is a Java-based build tool. Ant is similar to MAKE as it also has tasks and defines dependencies between tasks. The difference is that instead of implementing build tasks using platform-specific shell commands, ANT uses cross-platform Java classes.
  29. An accessory that is mounted directly on the doorstep, which prevents accidental closure of the door and the possible consequent restart of the machine or system.
    The anti-tampering device has a mechanical spring system, which is provided with a latch that allows emergency opening of the close door from the inside.
  30. Apache Kafka is an open-source message broker project developed by the Apache Software Foundation, written in Scala. The project aims to provide a unified, high-throughput, low-latency platform for real-time handling data feeds.
    The project aims to provide a unified, high-throughput, low-latency platform for handling real-time data feeds. The design is heavily influenced by transaction logs.
  31. Apache Storm is a distributed computation framework written predominantly in the Clojure programming language. Apache Storm makes it easy to reliably process unbounded streams of data, doing for real-time processing what Hadoop did for batch processing.
    Originally created by Nathan Marz and team at BackType, the project was open sourced after being acquired by Twitter. It uses custom created "spouts" and "bolts" to define information sources and manipulations to allow batch, distributed processing of streaming data. The initial release was on 17 September 2011. A Storm application is designed as a "topology" in the shape of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with spouts and bolts acting as the graph vertices. Edges on the graph are named streams and direct data from one node to another. Together, the topology acts as a data transformation pipeline. At a superficial level the general topology structure is similar to a MapReduce job, with the main difference being that data is processed in real-time as opposed to in individual batches.
  32. Apache Cassandra is an open-source distributed database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure.
    Cassandra offers robust support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters, with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency operations for all clients.
  33. Application enablement is an approach that brings telecommunications network providers and developers together to combine their network and web abilities in creating and delivering high demand advanced services and new intelligent applications.
    Network providers, in addition to bandwidth, provide abilities such as billing, location, presence, and security, which have allowed them to establish long-term relationships with end-users. By offering these select abilities as application programming interfaces (APIs), providers give developers access to a set of tools to create (mashup) new applications and services to run on provider networks. Unifying the strengths of providers and developers facilitates the creation of mash-up applications, and in turn, a better end user quality of experience (QoE) for improved profit margins.
  34. Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. In IoT, an API lets the developer access the functionality of a device or sensor, such as a thermometer’s readings. APIs can be public or restricted to authorized users only.
    A collection of commands and protocols used to interact with an operating system, device, or specific software component. In IoT, an API lets the developer access the functionality of a device or sensor, such as a thermometer’s readings. APIs can be public or restricted to authorized users only.
  35. Integrating sensors and sensor fusion in a single device, Application Specific Sensor Nodes (ASSNs) have built-in intelligence to cope with the complexity of applying multiple sensors to a specific problem such as augmented reality, navigation, positioning, and more.
    Bosch Sensortec's BNO055 is an example of an ASSN.
  36. An image or graphic superimposed over an Image Target。 This is the basics of AR technology

  37. AR Video Playback is a video anchored in 3D space (typically superimposed on an Image Target) while maintaining the view of the physical environment as opposed to full-screen playback.
    Instead of having images or filters added to the real world via the smartphone screen (like in Pokemon Go or Instagram filters), there is a video that plays when a particular image is spotted by the AR application. This could be for example a video advert for a coca cola drink if a can of coca cola is spotted by the AR app on the smartphones screen.
  38. Architecting Resilience is IT-Systems that can avoid accidents and failures. System resilience implies the capability to resist perturbances and crises, to recover from emergencies and near-catastrophes, and the ability to adapt to a continually changing environment.
    System resilience implies the capability to resist perturbances and crises, to recover from emergencies and near-catastrophes, and the ability to adapt to a constantly changing environment.
  39. An enterprise architecture framework defines how to create and use enterprise architecture. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system.
    An enterprise architecture framework (EA framework) defines how to create and use an enterprise architecture. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system.
  40. Architecture Layer is a logical partitioning of the system architecture. An architecture layer uses many layers for allocating the different responsibilities of e.g., a software product.
    A architecture layer uses many layers for allocating the different responsibilities of e.g. a software product.
  41. Architecture views are representations of the overall architecture that are meaningful to one or more stakeholders in the system. The architect develops a set of views that will enable the architecture to be communicated to all the stakeholders.
    A view model or viewpoints framework in systems engineering, software engineering, and enterprise engineering is a framework which defines a coherent set of views to be used in the construction of a system architecture, software architecture, or enterprise architecture.
  42. A single-board microcontroller used for prototyping without having to deal with breadboards or soldering. The software to operate an Arduino is free and open-source.
    The software to operate an Arduino is free and open source.
  43. A technology that gives computers the ability to learn based on data, previous experiences, and their environment to make decisions to maximize results. AI is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.
    AI is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction. Particular applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision.
  44. Assurance is a part of corporate governance in which management provides accurate and current information to the stakeholders about the efficiency and effectiveness of its policies and operations and the status of its compliance with the statutory obligations.
    Part of corporate governance in which a management provides accurate and current information to the stakeholders about the efficiency and effectiveness of its policies and operations, and the status of its compliance with the statutory obligations.
  45. AT commands, developed by Dennis Hayes, are used to set data connections. The set of short string commands allows developers to set up calls with a modem, as well as perform far more complex tasks.
    The set of short string commands allow developers to set up calls with a modem, as well as perform far more complex tasks. Examples of an AT command set is the Telit’s 3G module and the HE910.
  46. In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.
    In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction. For example, a transfer of funds from one bank account to another, even involving multiple changes such as debiting one account and crediting another, is a single transaction.
  47. An attack detection is the process of identifying that an attack has been attempted, is occurring, or has occurred. General attack detection, and recovery/resilience to cope with IoT-specific threats, such as compromised nodes, malicious code hacking attacks.
    General attack detection and recovery/resilience to cope with IoT-specific threats, such as compromised nodes, malicious code hacking attacks.
  48. An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
    Attack vectors enable hackers to exploit system vulnerabilities, including the human element. Attack vectors include viruses, e-mail attachments, Web pages, pop-up windows, instant messages, chat rooms, and deception. All of these methods involve programming (or, in a few cases, hardware), except deception, in which a human operator is fooled into removing or weakening system defenses.
  49. In computer science, attribution is a characteristic or property of an entity that can be used to describe its state, appearance, or other aspects. A usually good quality or feature that someone or something has.
    A usually good quality or feature that someone or something has.
  50. Audio Profile is a hardware profile used with Bluetooth applications that include custom AT commands and functionality dedicated to the wireless streaming of audio. Examples for Audio Profiles include A2DP.
    Examples for Audio Profiles include A2DP, which allows for streaming of audio to devices such as speakers, where as an audio gateway profile allows for two-way audio communication used in devices such as headsets.
  51. A physical entity is represented by a virtual entity on the digital level. An augmented entity combines the two and stands for any combination of the two entities.
    An augmented entity combines the two and stands for any combination of the two entities.
  52. A technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on the users' views of the real world, thus providing a composite view. Augmented Reality (AR) employs device cameras or sensors to map and identify the external environment to create an interactive experience of a real-world environment.
    Augmented Reality employs device cameras or sensors to map and identify the external environment to create an interactive experience of a real-world environment. Here the objects that reside in the real-world are augmented by computer-generated perceptual information.
  53. An augmented reality app is a software application that integrates digital visual content (and sometimes audio and other types) into the uses real-world environment. AR software is used for training, work, and consumer applications in many industries.
    An augmented reality app (AR app) is a software application that integrates digital visual content (and sometimes audio and other types) into the uses real-world environment. AR software is used for training, work and consumer applications in many industries including healthcare, public safety, gas and oil, tourism and marketing.
  54. Authenticated identity refers to the identity information for an entity created to record the result of identity authentication. User authentication occurs within most human-to-computer interactions other than guest accounts, automatically logged-in accounts, and kiosk computer systems.
    User authentication occurs within most human-to-computer interactions other than guest accounts, automatically logged-in accounts and kiosk computer systems. Generally, a user has to enter or choose an ID and provide their password to begin using a system. User authentication authorizes human-to-machine interactions in operating systems and applications as well as both wired and wireless networks to enable access to networked and Internet-connected systems, applications and resources.
  55. In computing, authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a person or device, preventing unauthorized access and misuse of personal information.
    Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data (a datum) claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity.
  56. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) is a term for a framework for intelligently controlling access to computer resources, enforcing policies, auditing usage, and providing the information necessary to bill for services.
    Authentication, authorization, and accounting services are often provided by a dedicated AAA server, a program that performs these functions. A current standard by which network access servers interface with the AAA server is the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS).
  57. Authorization is the process of giving someone permission to do or have something. In multi-user computer systems, a system administrator defines for the system which users are allowed access to the system and what privileges of use.
    Authorization is the process of giving someone permission to do or have something. In multi-user computer systems, a system administrator defines for the system which users are allowed access to the system and what privileges of use (such as access to which file directories, hours of access, amount of allocated storage space, and so forth). Assuming that someone has logged in to a computer operating system or application, the system or application may want to identify what resources the user can be given during this session. Thus, authorization is sometimes seen as both the preliminary setting up of permissions by a system administrator and the actual checking of the permission values that have been set up when a user is getting access.
  58. Automatic Identification and Mobility (AIM) technologies are a diverse family of technologies that share the common purpose of identifying, tracking, recording, storing, and communicating essential business, personal, or product data.
    Automatic Identification and Mobility (AIM) technologies are a diverse family of technologies that share the common purpose of identifying, tracking, recording, storing and communicating essential business, personal, or product data. In most cases, AIM technologies serve as the front end of enterprise software systems, providing fast and accurate collection and entry of data. AIM technologies include a wide range of solutions, each with different data capacities, form factors, capabilities, and "best practice" uses. AIM technologies also include mobile computing devices that facilitate the collection, manipulation, or communication of data from data carriers as well as through operator entry of data via voice, touch screens or key pads.
  59. Automatic incident detection (AID) aims to detect incidents automatically and quickly so that the problem can be dealt with and the roads restored to normal operation as soon as possible. The detection system could be CCTV using image processing.
    The AID system can be used in combination with the traffic flow measurement (TFM) device that measures the road occupancy, average speed, and the number of vehicles, and determines the type of vehicles. This is helpful for making plans of road construction. Since the AID system constantly processes image data, there is no restriction of the number of monitors, and an incident can be detected in real time. Surveillance staff can closely check the incident location or the circumstances before and after the occurrence of the incident based on the information provided by the system and by the use of the zooming and turning functions of the CCTV cameras.
  60. Autonomic computing refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users.
    The system makes decisions on its own, using high-level policies; it will constantly check and optimize its status and automatically adapt itself to changing conditions. An autonomic computing framework is composed of autonomic components (AC) interacting with each other. An AC can be modeled in terms of two main control loops (local and global) with sensors (for self-monitoring), effectors (for self-adjustment), knowledge and planner/adapter for exploiting policies based on self- and environment awareness.
  61. An autonomous circuit is a circuit that produces a time-varying output without having a time-varying input. An autonomous circuit generates and output without having any input.
    An autonomous circuit generates and output without having an input.
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